Diseases

Amblyopia

 

What is amblyopia (lazy eye)?

 

Amblyopia is additionally called “lazy eye.” it’s an eye fixed problem that starts in infancy. Amblyopia is that the commonest explanation for vision problems in children. It happens when one eye doesn’t work properly with the brain. The brain favors the attention that does work correctly. This causes a loss of vision within the other eye.

 

Amblyopia usually affects just one of the eyes. Sometimes it can affect both. it’s important to detect amblyopia in your child early and treat it promptly. If you do, he or she presumably won’t have long-term vision problems. Left untreated, it can cause severe vision problems, including legal blindness.

What are the symptoms of amblyopia?

 

Amblyopia usually starts between birth and age 7. Symptoms in your child could include:

 

    Eyes that don’t work together.

    One eye that wanders inward or outward.

    Squinting, shutting one eye, or tilting the top to seem at something.

    Problems with depth perception.

    An upper eyelid that droops.

 

Sometimes symptoms aren’t noticeable except in an eye fixed exam.

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Corneal Abrasions

What causes amblyopia?

 

All babies are born with poor eyesight. As they get older, their vision continues to enhance. permanently eyesight, both eyes got to provide an equivalent clear, focused image. Some children develop conditions that cause problems with their vision. These problems can cause the kid to urge a special picture from each eye. The child’s brain naturally tries to repair this problem by blocking out the weaker picture. If the matter isn’t fixed when the kid is young, the child’s brain will always ignore pictures from the weak eye. This causes amblyopia.

 

Any condition that forestalls the attention from focusing clearly can cause amblyopia. the three commonest conditions are:

 

    Strabismus (also called crossed eyes) – The eyes don’t line up within the same direction. this is often the foremost common explanation for amblyopia.

    Refractive error – This includes nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism. it’s more likely to cause amblyopia if the error is bigger in one eye.

    Cataracts – These cause clouding within the lens of the attention. Cataracts in children are uncommon.

 

Some children have a better risk of getting amblyopia. These include children who:

 

    Were born prematurely.

    Were small at birth.

    Have a case history of amblyopia.

    Have developmental disabilities.

 

How is amblyopia diagnosed?

 

If you notice any of the above symptoms in your child, even when he or she is an infant, call your doctor. He or she is going to do an eye fixed exam. they’re going to ask about symptoms, case history, and risk factors.

 

Otherwise, children should have an initial eye checkup between the ages of three and 5.

Can amblyopia be prevented or avoided?

 

Amblyopia can’t be prevented. But vision loss resulting from it are often avoided. Watch your child’s vision habits. If you’ve got any concerns, call your doctor. When amblyopia is caught and treated early, children should be ready to keep most of their vision. If it’s left untreated past the age of 10, they’re going to probably have vision problems for the remainder of their life. Early detection is that the key to preventing vision loss.

Amblyopia treatment

 

Treatment for amblyopia involves the kid using the weaker eye more. This helps the attention get stronger. to form the kid use the weaker eye, he or she is going to wear an adhesive patch over the stronger eye. most youngsters wear their patches 2 to six hours each day.

 

Sometimes, eye drops or special glasses are wont to blur the vision within the stronger eye. This also makes the weaker eye work harder and strengthens it. Glasses or contact lenses can fix problems with nearsightedness or farsightedness. Surgery could also be needed for cataracts, droopy eyelids, or crossed eyes.

 

Treatment usually lasts until vision is normal, or until vision stops recuperating. for many children, this takes several weeks to many months. a couple of children got to use eye patches until they’re 8 to 10 years old.

 

There’s alittle chance that using an eye fixed patch for too long can hurt the strong eye. Children who are wearing eye patches should see their doctor often during the treatment.

Why is early treatment important?

 

The first years of life are the foremost important for eyesight development. During a child’s first 7 to 10 years, connections between the attention and brain are created. it’s far more effective to treat amblyopia while those connections are still maturing. After your child’s vision system is fully developed, it’s hard to vary. If the amblyopia hasn’t been treated, he or she is going to presumably have poor vision for all times. It won’t be possible to repair it with glasses, patching, or the other treatment.

 

One clinical test showed that there might be benefits for treating children up to age 17. More research is required on how treatment could help teenagers or adults.

Living with amblyopia

 

Depending on your child’s age, it might be difficult for him or her to wear an eye fixed patch. If a patch bothers your child, ask your doctor if you’ve got other options. Glasses or eye drops could be a far better choice for your child.

 

Amblyopia can come after treatment is finished. It’s important to still watch your child for symptoms. If they are doing come, treatment will got to be done again. Some children’s treatment lasts until they’re 10 years old.

Questions to ask your doctor

 

    Will my child always have vision problems?

 what’s the simplest thanks to treat amblyopia?

    Will my child need glasses or contacts?

    My child must wear an eye fixed patch. How long will he or she wear it?

    Are there any long-term problems from amblyopia?

    My child doesn’t just like the eye patch. Is he or she a candidate for the attention drops?

 

 

 

 

What is Alzheimer’s disease?

 

Alzheimer’s disease may be a sort of dementia. Dementia may be a condition that describes a good range of symptoms. The symptoms are related to physical and functional changes within the brain. Dementia usually affects a person’s memory, thinking abilities, and personality. within the later stages, an individual who has dementia has difficulty caring for him or herself.

 

Alzheimer’s disease is that the commonest explanation for dementia among older persons. However, other things also can cause dementia. Alzheimer’s disease most ordinarily affects people older than 65 years aged. people that are younger than 65 years aged also can have Alzheimer’s disease. this is often called early onset Alzheimer’s. Early onset Alzheimer’s isn’t quite common.

Symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

 

If you’re worried you or a beloved may have Alzheimer’s disease, there are 10 primary symptoms to think about. every one is different and should have more or but these 10 symptoms. ask your doctor if you notice 1 or more in yourself or a beloved.

 

 amnesia that affects daily life: Examples include forgetting important dates or belongings you just learned; asking an equivalent question over and over; or relying heavily on reminder notes, technology, or other relations to recollect things.

    Changes within the ability to follow an idea or solve a drag: this might include having trouble concentrating on a problem, like a math problem; following an idea, like a recipe; or keeping track of regularly scheduled tasks, like paying monthly bills.

    Changes within the ability to finish familiar tasks: Alzheimer’s disease can make it hard to try to to the items that you simply wont to do all the time. for instance, it’d be hard to try to to chores reception, run errands, or finish a routine task at work.

    Confusion about time or place: Examples include losing track of what proportion time has passed, the date or the day of the week, forgetting where you’re and the way you bought there.

    Problems with vision or understanding visual information: Examples include trouble with reading comprehension, identifying colors, judging distances, or getting confused about what you see.

    Problems with words: Examples include forgetting words within the middle of a conversation, repeating parts of a conversation, or problems with vocabulary, like calling things by the incorrect names.

    Misplacing things: Examples include putting things in unusual places, losing things often, being unable to retrace steps so as to seek out a lost object, and even accusing others of stealing.

    Poor judgment: Examples include paying less attention to appearance or cleanliness and using poor judgment with money, like giving large amounts of cash to solicitors.

    Withdrawal from activities: Examples include withdrawing from social activities, work projects, or family gatherings, or abandoning a hobby, sport, or favorite activity.

    Changes in mood and personality: Examples include becoming unusually confused, suspicious, upset, depressed, fearful, or anxious, especially when in new or unfamiliar places.

 

Alzheimer’s disease is named a “progressive” disease. this suggests that its symptoms usually start slowly and are mild. A person’s cognitive (brain) and functional (self care) abilities worsen over time. within the later stages of the disease, an individual who has Alzheimer’s is not any longer ready to communicate and depends entirely on people for care.

 

Also, because the disease progresses, an individual can experience health complications, including:

 

    Depression.

    Unreported pain, illness, or medicine side effects (due to the lack to communicate).

    Falls.

    Pneumonia or other infections.

    Malnutrition or dehydration.

 

If you think that that a beloved could be experiencing any of the complications listed above, ask their doctor. He or she will provide medicine or other treatments to assist keep your beloved comfortable.

What causes Alzheimer’s disease?

 

Doctors don’t know what causes Alzheimer’s disease. One theory is that the disease develops when clumps of abnormal proteins grow within the brain. This growth likely begins with many small changes within the brain. This typically starts long before any symptoms are noticeable. Over time, these changes add up. Eventually, brain cells become damaged and die.

 

Also, doctors believe certain things increase a person’s risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease. Those risks factors include:

 

    Age: The older you’re, the greater your risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. After age 65, your chance of developing Alzheimer’s doubles every 5 years.

    Genetics and case history: you’re more likely to urge Alzheimer’s disease if you’ve got a family history of it. Scientists also think that certain genes in your DNA may increase your risk for Alzheimer’s disease.

 mongolism: people that have Down syndrome have a way higher risk for Alzheimer’s disease than the overall population.

    Environmental/lifestyle factors: it’s likely that your environment and your lifestyle habits also affect your risk for Alzheimer’s disease. A history of head trauma, cardiovascular or heart problems, diabetes, and obesity appear to extend your risk for Alzheimer’s disease. to assist prevent these health problems, wear a helmet when riding a bicycle, always buckle your safety belt when within the car, establish a daily exercise routine, eat right, and avoid tobacco products.

 

Alzheimer’s disease also appears to be more common in women than in men. Nearly two-thirds of individuals who have Alzheimer’s disease are women.

How is Alzheimer’s disease diagnosed?

 

An Alzheimer’s diagnosis may take a while. there’s no test which will tell your doctor whether you’ve got the disease. Give your doctor many information to assist determine the explanation for your symptoms. Your doctor might want to guage the subsequent in you or your loved one:

 

    Current health and medical record.

    Daily routine and any changes in your behavior.

    Memory, problem-solving, attention, and language abilities.

    Lab tests, like blood or urine tests.

    Brain scans to seem for problems, like stroke, which will be causing symptoms.

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