Diseases

Angina

What is angina?

 

Angina may be a heart disease that causes pain or pressure. However, not all pain and pressure is heart-related.

 

There are three sorts of angina:

 

    Stable angina. this is often the foremost common. It occurs when your cardiac muscle isn’t getting enough blood flow during times of physical activity. Stable angina features a regular pattern. it’s usually treated over a extended period. Treatment includes medicines also as a gradual reintroduction to exercise. this is often offered as a part of a cardiac program. This improves your heart’s activity and may reduce risk factors that help the condition progress.

    Unstable angina. this is often the foremost serious. It can occur without warning—even once you aren’t being physically active. And it doesn’t follow a pattern. It lasts longer than stable angina. Rest and medicine don’t help relieve unstable angina. It are often a warning of a attack.

    Variant angina. this is often rare. It typically happens during the night or early morning once you are at rest. Medicines can help.

 

Angina can bother you once you do activities like walking, climbing stairs, exercising, or cleaning. you ought to attend the ER if you’ve got pain that won’t get away.

Symptoms of angina

 

 pain or pressure.

    Intense sweating.

    Difficulty catching your breath.

    Pain in your arm, neck, jaw or shoulder.

    Nausea.

    Fatigue (feeling overly tired).

 the sensation of gas or indigestion.

    Pain that comes and goes.

 

What causes angina?

 

Angina may be a sort of heart condition. it’s caused by blockages within the arteries that provide blood to your heart. Certain risk factors can cause heart condition, including:

 

    High vital sign.

    Diabetes.

    Smoking.

    High cholesterol

    Menopause in women.

 case history of heart condition at a young age.

 

How is angina diagnosed?

 

Your doctor will examine your symptoms and ask you about your case history. to check for heart condition, your doctor may need you undergo one or more of the subsequent tests:

 

    Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG). This involves attaching wires and pads to your chest. it’s going to detect damage to the guts and arteries. If the test is performed while you’ve got angina, it can tell whether the pain is said to your heart.

 assay. This involves having you walk on a treadmill or taking certain medicines. On the treadmill, you’ll have an equivalent wires and pads attached to your chest. It can detect any abnormalities together with your heart while you’re physically active.

    X-rays. This provides your doctor with an image of your heart.

    Cardiac catheterization. During this test, your doctor will insert a really long, thin tube into an artery in your arm or leg. The doctor will guide the tube into your heart. Your doctor will inject dye is injected into the arteries round the heart. He or she also will take X-rays during the procedure to seem for blockages.

 

Can angina be prevented or avoided?

 

The best thanks to prevent angina is to stop heart condition. If you’ve got high vital sign, diabetes, and/or high cholesterol, follow your doctor’s treatment plan. If you smoke, stop. Maintain a healthy diet, a healthy weight, and obtain regular exercise to avoid heart condition.

 

If you have already got heart condition, the steps listed above are important to assist keep the matter from getting worse. If you’ve got a case history of heart condition, ask your doctor about ways of reducing risk factors that make it worse.

Angina treatment

 

Severe angina is usually treated with a drugs called nitroglycerin. Overall, angina are often treated by treating your heart condition. If something aside from heart condition is causing your pain, your doctor will recommend treatment for that condition.

Living with angina

 

Living with angina means controlling your risk factors. If you’ve got heart condition caused by underlying conditions, follow your treatment plan for healthy living. Take your prescribed medicines.

Questions to ask your doctor

 

    What lifestyle changes do i want to form to alleviate my symptoms?

    Is it safe on behalf of me to exercise? How do i buy started?

    Can surgery help?

    Will the drugs I’m prescribed interact with the medicines I’m already taking?

    What symptoms mean my condition is getting worse?

    Does angina put me in danger for any long-term problems?

 

 

 

What is anemia?

 

Anemia is that the commonest blood disease within the us. It affects your red blood cells and hemoglobin. this is often the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from your lungs to the remainder of your body. you would like iron so as to form hemoglobin. most of the people who have anemia have a shortage of iron. This condition is named iron deficiency anemia.

 

There are a couple of other sorts of anemia, including:

 

 aplastic anaemia. this happens when your bone marrow has damaged stem cells. Your body fails to supply enough new blood cells. The condition affects your red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Sometimes it’s called bone marrow failure.

 haemolytic anaemia. this happens when your body destroys red blood cells before they ought to. the traditional lifespan of red blood cells is 120 days.

    Normocytic anemia. this happens when your red blood cells are normal in size, but low in count.

 pernicious anaemia. this happens when your body lacks vitamin B12. It causes a shortage of healthy red blood cells.

 red blood cell anemia (a sort of red blood cell disease). this is often a genetic disorder that affects your red blood cells. It occurs once you are born with 2 abnormal hemoglobin genes.

 

Symptoms of anemia

 

Mild sorts of anemia might not cause any symptoms. Fatigue, or feeling tired, may be a common symptom. this is often because the hemoglobin in red blood cells carries oxygen. a scarcity of oxygen reduces energy. It can cause your heart to figure harder to pump oxygen. Anemia can produce other symptoms, such as:

 

    paleness

    shortness of breath

    cold hands and feet

    headaches

    dizziness

    fast, slow, or uneven heartbeat

    brittle nails or hair loss

    strange food cravings (known as pica).

 

Contact your doctor if you’ve got any of those symptoms. they will diagnose the sort and explanation for the condition.

What causes anemia?

 

There are three main reasons why anemia occurs.

 

    Your body can’t produce enough red blood cells.

 

Diet

 

Your body might not produce enough red blood cells if you lack certain nutrients. Low iron may be a common problem. people that don’t eat meat or follow “fad” diets are more in danger of low iron. Infants and toddlers are in danger of getting anemia from a low-iron diet. Low vitamin B12 and vitamin Bc can cause anemia also.

 

Unable to soak up

 

Certain diseases affect your small intestine’s ability to soak up nutrients. for instance, Crohn’s disease and disorder can cause low iron levels in your body. Some foods, like milk, can prevent your body from absorbing iron. Taking vitamin C can help this. Medicines, like antacids or prescriptions to scale back acid in your stomach, can affect it also.

 

Pregnancy

 

Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding can get anemia. When you’re pregnant, you would like more blood (up to 30%) to share with the baby. If your body lacks iron or vitamin B12, your body can’t produce enough red blood cells.

 

The following factors may increase your risk of anemia during pregnancy.

 

    Vomiting tons from nausea.

    Having a diet low in nutrients.

    Having heavy periods before pregnancy.

    Having 2 pregnancies approximate.

    Being pregnant with multiple babies directly.

    Becoming pregnant as an adolescent.

    Losing tons of blood from an injury or surgery.

 

Growth spurts

 

Children younger than 3 years aged are susceptible to anemia. Their bodies grow so fast that they will have a tough time getting or keeping enough iron.

 

Normocytic anemia

 

Normocytic anemia are often congenital (from birth) or acquired (from a disease or infection). the foremost common explanation for the acquired form may be a chronic (long-term) disease. Examples include renal disorder, cancer, atrophic arthritis, and thyroiditis. Some medicines can cause normocytic anemia, but this is often rare.

 

    Your body destroys red blood cells early and faster that they will get replaced.

 

Treatments, like chemotherapy, can damage your red blood cells and/or bone marrow. Infection caused by a weakened system can cause anemia. you’ll change state with a condition that destroys or remove red blood cells. Examples include red blood cell disease, thalassemia, and a scarcity of certain enzymes. Having an enlarged or diseased spleen can cause anemia, too.

 

 you’ve got blood loss that makes a shortage of red blood cells.

 

Heavy periods may cause low iron levels in women. Internal bleeding, like in your digestive or tract, can cause blood loss. this will be caused by conditions like a stomach ulcer or colitis. Other reasons for blood loss include:

 

    cancer

    surgery

    trauma

    taking aspirin or an identical medicine for an extended time.

 

How is anemia diagnosed?

 

Talk to your doctor if you think that you or your child may need anemia. they’re going to do a physical exam and review your health history and symptoms. To diagnose anemia, your doctor will test your blood. This test is named an entire blood count (CBC). supported the results, they’ll got to do other tests, like testing your bone marrow. this will help confirm the explanation for anemia or another health condition.

Can anemia be prevented or avoided?

 

You cannot avoid anemia caused by a genetic disorder. you regularly cannot avoid it thanks to blood loss. If your blood loss is from heavy periods, receiving treatment can help prevent anemia. If your body can’t absorb certain nutrients, like iron or vitamin B12, ask your doctor about taking a supplement. this will help manage your levels and stop anemia.

 

A diet can help prevent some sorts of anemia. Eat the foods below to stop a deficiency.

 

Foods high in iron include:

 

 meat

    seafood

    organ meats, like liver

    whole grains

    dried fruits

    nuts

    beans, especially lima beans

    dark green leafy vegetables, like spinach and broccoli

    iron-fortified foods, like breads and cereals (check the label).

 

Vitamin C can help your body absorb iron. Try eating foods, like citrus fruits or juice. Some foods can make it harder for your body to soak up iron. These include coffee, tea, milk, egg whites, fiber, and soy protein. attempt to avoid these foods if you’ve got iron deficiency anemia.

 

Foods high in vitamin B12 include:

 

    meat and poultry

    organ meats, like liver

    fish and shellfish

    eggs, milk, and dairy products

    some fortified cereals, grains, and yeasts (check the label).

 

Foods high in vitamin Bc (folate) include:

 

    dark green leafy vegetables, like spinach and broccoli

    asparagus

    beans

    peas

    lentils

    bananas, oranges, and fruit juice.

 

Pregnant women could also be tested for anemia or take an iron supplement to assist prevent it. However, the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) has insufficient evidence to assess the advantages and risks of screening pregnant women for iron deficiency anemia or having them take an iron supplement.

 

Evidence is also lacking to live the advantages and risks of screening children ages 6 to 24 months. to assist prevent your child from getting iron deficiency anemia, you can:

 

    use iron-fortified formula

    use iron-fortified cereal starting around 4 months aged

    limit your child to but 24 oz. (3 cups) of cow’s milk per day (after 12 months of age)

    introduce foods high in iron starting around 12 months aged.

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